Upscaling of greenhouse vegetable production

Upscaling of greenhouse vegetable production


18/04/2018 15:05 © Hollandse Hoogte / Bert Beelen The number of greenhouse vegetable growers decreased by 85 percent between 1980 and 2017. At the same time, the average cultivation area in use by the remaining growers increased sevenfold. In 2017, the ten largest farms specialising in greenhouse vegetable production accounted for nearly 10 percent of the total acreage used in greenhouse vegetable production. This is according to definitive figures taken from the Agricultural Census 2017, conducted by Statistics Netherlands (CBS).

Greenhouse vegetable production has seen a massive scale increase over a period of nearly 40 years. The number of greenhouse vegetable growers fell from nearly 8 thousand in 1980 to 1.26 thousand in 2017, i.e. a decline of around 85 percent. At the same time, the acreage devoted to greenhouse vegetables grew by 7 percent to nearly 5 thousand hectares (ha).

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Greenhouse vegetable production
1980 4.66 7.86
1981 4.65 7.72
1982 4.65 7.54
1983 4.63 7.35
1984 4.59 7.17
1985 4.56 6.97
1986 4.53 6.78
1987 4.45 6.54
1988 4.43 6.31
1989 4.42 5.99
1990 4.45 5.65
1991 4.53 5.53
1992 4.59 5.39
1993 4.73 5.25
1994 4.50 4.91
1995 4.41 4.69
1996 4.25 4.41
1997 4.20 4.19
1998 4.31 4.08
1999 4.28 3.77
2000 4.20 3.43
2000 4.20 3.43
2001 4.27 3.17
2002 4.29 3.00
2003 4.32 2.83
2004 4.36 2.65
2005 4.44 2.55
2006 4.55 2.40
2007 4.57 2.21
2008 4.65 2.02
2009 4.83 1.87
2010 4.99 1.77
2011 4.99 1.69
2012 4.87 1.59
2013 4.89 1.52
2014 4.83 1.44
2015 4.76 1.39
2016 4.92 1.33
2017 4.99 1.26

Greenhouse vegetable farms expanding more and more

In 1980, the area per greenhouse vegetable grower still amounted to an average 0.6 ha, versus 4 ha in 2017. The average cultivation area has seen a tremendous increase over the past five years in particular. Over the period 1980-2000, upscaling went step by step, with the average greenhouse vegetable area per farm doubling from 0.6 to 1.2 ha. This was already over 3 ha five years ago; by 2017, the average greenhouse vegetable grower was cultivating on 5 ha.

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Greenhouse vegetable area per grower
1980 0.6
1981 0.6
1982 0.6
1983 0.6
1984 0.6
1985 0.7
1986 0.7
1987 0.7
1988 0.7
1989 0.7
1990 0.8
1991 0.8
1992 0.9
1993 0.9
1994 0.9
1995 0.9
1996 1.0
1997 1.0
1998 1.1
1999 1.1
2000 1.2
2000 1.2
2001 1.3
2002 1.4
2003 1.5
2004 1.6
2005 1.7
2006 1.9
2007 2.1
2008 2.3
2009 2.6
2010 2.8
2011 3.0
2012 3.1
2013 3.2
2014 3.4
2015 3.4
2016 3.7
2017 4.0

Greenhouse strawberry production tripled

Partly driven by innovations such as improved vegetable varieties, targeted application of nutrients and the use of supplemental lighting, greenhouse vegetable growers are able to achieve higher production levels on the same area. Some 25 years ago, for example, around 40 kg of tomatoes were picked per square metre annually. This yield has now gone up to over 50 kg.

Average production levels of greenhouse vegetables rose by around 36 percent between 2000 and 2017. Strawberry cultivation under glass almost tripled (177 percent) while production of courgettes more than doubled (138 percent). There was furthermore a substantial increase in greenhouse cultivation of tomatoes (75 percent) and aubergines (61 percent).

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Greenhouse vegetable production
2000 520 410 285 33 15
2001 550 425 295 31 15
2002 555 433 310 33 16
2003 595 430 315 39 16.5
2004 655 435 318 41 15.5
2005 660 440 345 41 17
2006 680 440 318 40 19.5
2007 685 430 320 41 21
2008 730 425 335 43 21.2
2009 800 435 370 46 20.5
2010 815 435 365 46 21.4
2011 825 430 365 46 24
2012 805 410 345 47 24.4
2013 855 400 325 48 27
2014 900 440 340 51 29
2015 890 405 360 53 28.6
2016 900 370 365 54 32.5
2017* 910 400 370 53 41.5

Standard output in greenhouse horticulture exceeds 2 million euros

Greenhouse vegetable cultivation is one of three agricultural sectors which have recorded a turnover increase of more than 1 million euros over the past 17 years. In 2000, the standard output generated by an average-sized holding in greenhouse vegetable production still amounted to 570 thousand euros; this had exceeded 2 million euros by 2017.

Ten farms accounting for 10 percent of greenhouse vegetable area

The ten largest specialist greenhouse vegetable production holdings combined accounted for 486 ha in acreage in 2017, equivalent to around 10 percent of the total greenhouse vegetable cultivation area in the Netherlands. In 2000, the ten largest holdings were good for only 3 percent (115 ha). The average number of workers at these specialist holdings is 18. The ten largest ones employ over 170 people on average.

As of 2000, the standard output generated by specialist greenhouse vegetable production holdings has increased on an annual basis from around half a million euros to over 2 million euros (2017). Turnover realised by the ten largest farms increased from around 5 million euros in 2000 to over 21 million euros in 2017.

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