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62 DIMENSIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

The majority of hilly (part of northern plain) areas have full of fertile land. Which is

perfect for vegetable production, but facing extreme temperature ranges from 0°–48°. Hence

it is not possible the year round production (Wani et al., 2011). At the plain area, during the

pre and post rainy season the crop become susceptible to biotic agent e.g. Tomato,

cauliflower, chilli, and okra. It has been found that the high altitude of hills affected with

extreme cold –5° to –30° consequently difficult to grow vegetable during November to

March. Protected agriculture, which includes polyhouse, shade net, poly-tunnel, polymulch,

etc., protects the agricultural cropsfrom sudden changes in weather and regulates the

environment inside these structures (Negi et al., 2013). Greenhouse/poly house/net house are

suitable technology under this diverse climate for year round and off season vegetable

production. The protected vegetables cultivation technology can be utilized production of

high value, low volume vegetables, crops production of virus free quality seedlings, quality

hybrid seed production and as a tool for disease resistance breeding programs. The need of

protected cultivation since last 10 years has been dramatically increased. The various cause

are reduced weed pressure, moistureconservation, reduction of certain insect pests, highercrop

yields, and more efficient use of soil nutrients (Negi et al., 2013).

Definition

Protective cultivation practices can be defined as cropping techniques wherein the micro

climate surrounding the plant body is controlled partially/fully, as per the requirementof the

plant species grown, during their period of growth (Mishra et al., 2010). The various types of

protective cultivation practices have been adopting based upon the prevailing climatic

condition. Among them, greenhouse/polyhouse is extremely useful for Round-the-year

vegetable cultivation in temperate condition (Mishra et al., 2010). Protected cultivation also

known as controlled environment agriculture (CEA) is highly productive, conservative of

water and land and also protective of the environment (Jensen, 2002).

Principles of Greenhouse Cultivation

The greenhouse cultivation based upon the principle called as greenhouse effects.

Actually, greenhouse is a structure made with the transparent covering material (polythene,

glass), that, transmit the solar energy inside the structure. This energy absorbed by the

vegetable crops and the objects inside the house releasing light of long wave length, finally

this light does not emit out as the cladding material is non-transparent for these light. Finally

the light gets trapped inside increasing the inside temperature. This rise in temperature in

greenhouse is responsible for growing of vegetable in cold climate. However during summer

increase in temperature can be managed by ventilation and cooling system, as in this period

temperature rose beyond the critical temperature.

Why Protected Cultivation ?

The open field production of vegetable encounter with many production constrains like

heavy rain, thunderstorms, excessive solar radiation, temperatures and humidity levels above

plant growth optima (Max et al., 2009), high insect pest infestation pressure (Nguyen et al.,

2009) and fungal diseases (Sringarm et al., 2013). Environment is the most determinate factor

in horticultural crop (Trivedi and Singh, 2015). Protected cultivation is being used to control

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