Forest sorts and tree species of Xishuangbanna,Yunnan, China



Dr. Ulrich Apel

Jinghong, Xishuangbanna

February 2001


Table of Contents


1. Background and Objective of the Assignment *

2. Findings *

2.1 Physical geography of Xishuangbanna *

2.2 Factors influencing forest structure and species composition in Xishuangbanna *

2.3 Forest formations and local vegetation types in Xishuangbanna *

2.4 Main plant families and species in Xishuangbanna *

3. Conclusion and Recommendations *



a.s.l. above sea stage

DBH diameter at breast peak (1.3 m)

MEBF montane evergreen broad-leaved forest

TEF tropical evergreen rainforest

TS-EF tropical semi-evergreen (monsoon) forest



1. Background and Objective of the Assignment

Since 1998, the Tropical Forest Ecosystems Administration Venture (TEFM) has collected intensive materials about biodiversity in Xishuangbanna and documented with pictures for the aim of biodiversity monitoring and documentation of the biodiversity within the undertaking pilot websites. The documentation focussed on birds, butterflies, reptiles, orchids, ferns, and non-timber forest merchandise utilized by the ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, forest sorts and its important tree species haven’t been sufficiently lined to date.

The target of this short-term task was to conduct a survey on the principle forest sorts in Xishuangbanna and to explain their important consultant plant households and tree species in addition to different attribute crops akin to palms, climbers, and bamboo. The species have been to be described in textual content and with pictures to serve future wants for publication in print or web sites. As Xishuangbanna is a biosphere reserve, the hyperlinks between the ethnic teams dwelling on this space and the biodiversity have been to be regarded and conventional makes use of made from the native crops investigated (see additionally ANNEX 1: Phrases of Reference).

This short-term consultancy has been carried out from 4 – 28 February, 2001. The advisor primarily based the survey on the accessible literature about Xishuangbanna´s and adjoining forest ecosystems,,,, as properly as on personal investigations.


2. Findings

  1. Bodily geography of Xishuangbanna
  2. Topography

    Xishuangbanna is situated within the southernmost tip of Yunnan province bordering Myanmar within the Southwest and Laos within the Southeast. It covers an space of about 20,000 km_. Altitudes vary between 410 – 2,400 m a.s.l. The terrain is hilly to montane with common altitudes between 800 and 1000 m. Virtually all streams are tributaries of the Mekong which bisects Xishuangbanna from North to South.

    Local weather

    The local weather is strongly seasonal with two important air lots alternating through the yr: between Might and October the South-West Monsoon delivers about 80% of the annual rainfall, whereas the dry and chilly air of the Southern edges of the jet streams dominate the local weather between November and April. Annual rainfall varies between 1200 mm within the Mekong valley and 1900 mm in altitude above 1500 m. Though the rainfall could be very seasonal the dry season shouldn’t be excessive in nature. Fog with a median period of 6 hours happens on about 130 days, primarily within the dry season.



  3. Elements influencing forest construction and species composition
    in Xishuangbanna
  4. The seasonal local weather coupled with the advanced topography has resulted in a pure vegetation sample consisting of each evergreen and deciduous forest patches and leading to excessive species range. A lengthy historical past of human interplay has additional influenced the forests that prevail at the moment. The construction and species composition in a specific forest patch depends upon three important elements: moisture, altitude, and human interplay.


    The moisture of a specific web site is strongly associated to rainfall, topography, and geology. Though lowland areas have much less rainfall, crops can usually entry floor water. In Xishuangbanna, fog in valley and lowland areas supplies moisture within the dry season. Valleys and concave slopes present extra moist situations than ridges and convex slopes. Exposition to North often supplies moist and shady situations for an extended interval of time. One of the best soils for retaining moisture accessible to crops have a excessive content material of natural matter and a balanced proportion of sand, silt and clay.

    Crops that aren’t confined to water provide all through the yr have developed approaches to keep away from extreme water loss. Typical for monsoon forest in Xishuangbanna is the deciduous behavior of the emergent bushes that shed their leaves within the dry season. In greater elevation with sandy soils, a sclerophyllus behavior is widespread. The dominant tree species have developed thick leaves with waxy coating to cut back water loss.


    Highland areas have decrease temperatures than lowland areas. The incidence of frost causes sharp transitions within the vegetation. In Xishuangbanna frost days are probably above 1200 m. Extra rainfall in greater elevations does not essentially present extra moisture to crops. Sandy and poor soils in greater elevation trigger much less accessible water for crops. Topography continues to play a big function with uncovered ridges and shady valleys supporting totally different vegetation than intermediate areas.

    Human interplay

    Human interplay performs a vital function in Xishuangbanna, which has been inhabited by totally different ethnic teams most likely since extra than 4000 years. Every ethnic group has developed its attribute varieties of land use shaping the setting they stay in. The interactions with the forest embrace shifting cultivation, timber and fuelwood harvesting, cultivation within the forest, assortment of assorted non-timber forest merchandise, and non secular motivated safety of designated forest patches and sure species in addition to the introduction of unique crops.

    The principle ethnic group, the Dai are well-known for preserving holy hills and huge strangler figs out of spiritual motivation. The Dai have launched many species associated to Buddhism that are actually widespread in Xishuangbanna, akin to Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Ficus religiosa, and Mesua ferrea. The fast-growing Cassia siamea has been launched for fuelwood manufacturing in a coppice system and brought up by different ethnic teams. Cultivation of Amomum villosum underneath the forest cover has modified the forest construction in lots of village forests in Xishuangbanna. The selective slicing of timber with good wooden properties for home constructing has led to adjustments in species composition in most village forest areas. Species like Ficus spp., Gmelina arborea, and Schima wallichii are extra widespread after disturbances within the pure forest.

    Hill tribes akin to Hani, Yao, Lahu, Yi and Jinuo practise shifting cultivation, whereas Kemu and Kucong are predominantly hunters and gatherers. The Jinuo domesticate tee underneath the forest cowl resulting in attribute coppice forests with by big emergents. Shifting cultivation methods practised by these ethnic teams have led to excessive proportions of pioneer species akin to Macaranga spp., Duabanga grandifolia, Anthocephalus chinensis, in addition to Bamboo species. Moreover, helpful species with edible fruits and so on. are sometimes retained in shifting cultivation methods influencing species composition when the forest regenerates.


  5. Forest formations and native vegetation sorts in Xishuangbanna

The survey recognized three important forest formations and 5 native vegetation sorts in Xishuangbanna.

I Tropical evergreen rainforest (TEF)

Tropical evergreen rainforest happens in Xishuangbanna in moist areas and in altitudes as much as 800 m. In mature forest stands the biggest bushes attain as much as 50 m in peak, or extra within the case of Parashorea chinensis. The center storey is at 20-25 m; a properly developed underneath storey could be discovered. Epiphytic ferns, orchids, and semi-epiphytes akin to Schefflera spp. and Ficus spp. are plentiful on the bushes. These forests are dominated by members of the plant households Myristicaceae, Guttiferae, Lecythydaceae, Rubiaceae, and Meliaceae. Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea chinensis, Vatica xishuangbannaensis) are solely occurring within the south-eastern a part of Xishuangbanna under 700 m. Apart from the above talked about Parashorea chinensis widespread species embrace Pometia tomentosa, Barringtonia macrostachya, Terminalia myriocarpa, Chisocheton siamensis, Tetrameles nudiflora, Metadina trichotoma, Horsfieldia glabra, Myristica yunnanensis, Knema spp., Garcinia spp., Mitrephora spp., Pittosporopsis kerrii, and Baccaurea ramiflora. Domestically plentiful palm species embrace Caryota ochlandra, Calamus spp., and Pinanga spp.

The incidence of those tree households and species factors to floristic similarities with rainforests in Southeast Asia. Nonetheless, as Xishuangbanna is situated on the northern margin of tropical SE Asia and is a transitional space between the tropics and subtropics, many typical tropical crops attain their distributional limits and a few of the actually tropical plant households and genera which are wealthy in species in tropical SE Asia have just a few representatives right here. Nonetheless, the TEF are the richest when it comes to species range in Xishuangbanna. Species densities of 140 tree species (> 10 cm diameter DBH) per hectare are usually not unusual within the Nature Reserves, as a result of the forest flora is endowed with tree households and species of the subtropical flora of Southern China.


II Tropical semi-evergreen (monsoon) forest (TS-EF)

Monsoon forest prevails in altitudes between 800 m and 1000 m. Domestically, the place the local weather reveals a extra distinctive seasonality it may be discovered under 800 m. The construction of those forests is characterised by a much less closed cover fashioned by emergents with massive crowns which shed their leaves throughout the dry season, whereas the underneath story and center story layer stays evergreen. On this transitional zone between evergreen tropical rainforest and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, a mixture of evergreen and deciduous tree species could be discovered. Species densities attain as much as of 80 – 100 tree species (> 10 cm DBH) per hectare. Typical tree households are Moraceae, Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Tiliaceae, and Leguminosae. Widespread species embrace Ficus altissima, Toona sinensis, Nephelium chryseum, Altingia excelsa, Bischofia javanica, and Colona floribunda. On dryer websites Bombax ceiba, Erythrina stricta, and Bauhinia variegata are widespread.



III Montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF)

This montane evergreen formation is the attribute and predominant vegetation kind in Xishuangbanna protecting altitudes between 1000 m and 2400 m, accounting for 80% of the forest space. The construction of those forests is less complicated than within the lowland and monsoon forests, with only a few emergents and poorly developed underneath story/shrub layers. The bushes forming the cover are nearly fully evergreen and attain a dense cowl of 90% with a imply peak of 20-25 m. Dominant tree households are Fagaceae and Lauraceae, blended with Theaceae, Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Juglandaceae, and Elaeocarpaceae. Widespread species embrace Castanopsis hystrix, C. mekongensis, Lithocarpus truncatus, Litsea glutinosa, Actinodaphne henryi, Schima wallichii, Syzygium yunnanensis, Elaeocarpus austro-yunnanensis, Paramichelia baillonii, Engelhardtia spp. Smaller bushes within the underneath story embrace Machilus salicina, Olea rosea, Aporusa spp. Species densities vary between 50 – 80 tree species (> 10 cm DBH) per hectare.


IV Native vegetation sorts

(1) Limestone forest

Limestone outcrops in Xishuangbanna primarily happen in an space round Menglun starting from small pockets to bigger massifs. Though only a few species are restricted to limestone, these outcrops help fascinating forest sorts and include many species which were eradicated in areas which are extra accessible. Since limestone causes dryer situations, Monsoon forest sorts are widespread additionally in decrease elevations. Typical species are Ficus spp., Tetrameles nudiflora, Bauhinia variegata, and Mitrephora thorelii.

(2) Pine forest

Pure pine forests are discovered on an space of about 500 ha at altitudes between 1200 – 1800 m. Species diversities vary from 10 – 15 tree species per hectare. The dominating species is Pinus khasya var. langbianensis which often makes up 80% of the person bushes. The remaining 20% are a mix of Lithocarpus sp., Quercus dentata, Schima wallichii, Betula alnoides, and Engelhardtia spicata.

(3) Bamboo forest

Bamboo forests happen at altitudes under 1000 m. They cowl a fairly giant space, nonetheless, it’s tough to differentiate between naturally occurring bamboo forests and bamboo forest which are the results of varied varieties of degradation. Naturally, bamboo forests would most likely cowl much less space. Major species embrace Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, Cephalostachyum pergracile, Indosasa sinica, Schizostachyum funghomii, and Dinochloa puberula a climbing species.

(4) River gallery forest

River gallery forests happen alongside small rivers under 700 m altitude, primarily alongside the Nanlahe, Nanmanhe, Nanmuyanghe, Mengyanghe, and the Luosojiang. The species composition is principally influenced by the rate of the operating water and period of flooding of the riverbanks. Attribute tree species are Pterocarya tonkinensis, Ficus auriculata, F. heterophylla, F. gasparriniana var. esquirolii, Salix spp., Dillenia indica, Syzygium fluviatilis, Itea riparia, and Flemingia fluminales.

(5) Deciduous forest

Deciduous forests are solely discovered on a small space of about 300 ha in Xishuangbanna between altitudes of 1400 – 2400 m. The cover layer reaches about 30 m in peak; the species range is low, reaching solely about 10 species per hectare. These forests are nearly fully dominated by Alnus nepalensis, which often makes up greater than 90% of the person bushes. Different tree species embrace Albizzia sp., Celtis sp., Melia toosenden, Castanopsis mekongensis, Prunus plurinervis, and Elsholtzia ciliata.


2.4 Main plant families and species in Xishuangbanna

The survey recognized 28 plant households as the principle parts of Xishuangbanna´s forest sorts. 26 households embrace primarily tree species, 2 households (Palmae and Gramineae) embrace palms and bamboo. The outline of the species is structured alongside behavior, botany (bark, leaves, flower, fruit), ecology, distribution, and makes use of. The outline focuses on the ecology of the species, its habitat and affiliation with different crops. Moreover, makes use of of the totally different ethnic minorities have been included so far as it might be investigated.

The pictures taken cowl the behavior and botanical traits of the crops. Since flowering and fruiting durations of the totally different are very divers, just a few species might be totally documented with all their options. This should be continued by the TFEM undertaking sooner or later.

For the outline of the tree species kindly check with ANNEX 2. For the pictures kindly check with the separate ANNEX 3.


3. Conclusion and Recommendations

Though Xishuangbanna covers solely a comparatively small space of about 20,000 km_, the vegetation sample could be very divers. Three important forest formations and 5 vegetation sorts with native significance could be distinguished. Species range in all vegetation sorts is comparably excessive and plenty of endemic crops could be discovered. Nonetheless, the three important forest formations present clear floristic similarities to forests within the wider area. The tropical evergreen rainforest incorporates many floristic parts of rainforests in SE-Asia. The monsoon forest reveals similarities to forests in India and Myanmar, and the montane evergreen broad-leaved forest is transitional to subtropical forests of Southern China.

Being inhabited by 14 ethnic teams, Xishuangbanna´s ecosystems have a various diploma of human interplay which is characterised by totally different types of land and forest use of every ethnic group. Cultural hyperlinks between the ethnic teams and the forest ecosystems have influenced the construction and floristic composition of the prevailing forests. In some instances these interactions have even enriched the ecosystems, in different instances the species range decreased. Xishuangbanna´s complete space is a biosphere reserve. The safety of the forests has, subsequently, to contain the ethnic teams.

On this context it is a crucial exercise of the TFEM undertaking to observe and doc biodiversity with particular regard to the use and administration of the forest by totally different ethnic teams. The survey performed by the advisor supplies an outline about the principle vegetation sorts and its typical parts. On this foundation, the undertaking ought to additional acquire helpful info and add to this survey.

(Draft model 28/02/2001)

an image documentation might be added, quickly



Cosmopolitan household with 5 genera and 29 tree species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species embrace Gmelina arborea, Callicarpa arborea, Vitex quinata.

Gmelina arborea

Behavior: Deciduous tree, medium sized (as much as 25 m peak), quick rising.

Bark pale creamy brown or greyish. Leaves decussate, easy with a tip and barely heart-shaped base. Flower yellow-brown, in slim branched clusters, flowering February – March. Fruit 2-3 cm, greenish-yellow, fleshy with a tough 1-2 seeded stone, fruiting April – June.

Ecology: May be present in TEF and TS-EF, particularly in disturbed areas, prefers moist situations. Typically planted in Dai homegardens. Simple to be propagated by means of seedlings.

Distribution: Present in Jinghong and Mengla, additionally widespread in India, Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam.

Makes use of: worthwhile home constructing timber, flowers are utilized by the Dai to sweeten rice.

Word: Protected in China (class II).



Pantropical household with greater than 1000 species. 7 genera and about 80 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species embrace Antiaris toxicaria, Artocarpus tonkinensis, Broussonetia payrifera, Ficus altissima, Ficus auriculata, Ficus variegata.

Ficus altissima

Behavior: Largely evergreen, strangling fig, as much as 50 m in peak, ultimately turning into one of many largest bushes within the forest.

Bark skinny and clean, mild gray, lower components with white latex. Leaves spirally organized easy; 8-21 cm x 5-12 cm, elliptic to rectangular, hairless; darkish inexperienced above, under mild inexperienced; midrib distinguished. Flowers quite a few, unisexual or sterile (gall), contained within the figs. Fruit on the finish of the twigs, dimensions 1.7-2.8 cm, yellow-orange when ripe. Resulting from symbiosis with particular gall-wasp Ficus can produce figs a number of occasions a yr.

Ecology: Happens primarily in disturbed areas of TS-EF and MEBF. Sparsely happens in TEF. The Species is mild demanding. It begins life as an epiphyt on host bushes by means of seeds dispersed by animals. Vigorous development and strangling of the host after the roots have reached the soil. Ficus altissima is thought of a “keystone species” in tropical ecosystems which help frugivore animal populations starting from birds to small mammals by means of their huge and asynchronous fructification.

Distribution: Widespread and customary in Xishuangbanna; extensively distributed in complete mainland Southeast Asia.

Makes use of: The tree is considered a holy tree by the Dai and plenty of different ethnic teams. Its hanging development type and the particular options of the pollination biology make Ficus altissima predestined to be a realm of spirits. Massive specimen happen naturally in holy hills and sacred forests in addition to planted close to temples and pagodas. The wooden shouldn’t be used. Latex can be utilized to deal with wounds.


Ficus auriculata

Behavior: Small impartial rising evergreen tree, as much as 12 m peak with massive crown and crooked trunk.

Leaves 15-37 x 11-30 cm, broadly ovate or nearly round with extensively spaced blunt tooth. Figs 5-8 cm, densily clustered alongside quick woody stumps hanging from important trunk and branches; red-brown or darkish purple when ripening.

Ecology: Widespread in TEF, particularly alongside streams. Planted in homegardens and round fishponds.

Distribution: Widespread in Xishuangbanna, additionally distributed in Northern Thailand and Southern China.

Makes use of: Edible fruits; many ethnic teams use younger leaves as vegetable. The leaves are known as “elephant ears” by the Dai.




Tree household with 680 species nearly completely in Asia, concentrated within the rainforests of Malaysia and Indonesia. In Xishuangbanna 2 genera with 1 species every happen: Parashorea chinesis and Vatica xishuangbannaensis.

Parashorea chinensis

Behavior: Massive evergreen tree, as much as 75 m peak with tall straight bole and fairly open crown. Small buttresses from 1 – 4.5 m peak.

Bark: pale brown to gray, peeling in skinny, rounded flakes. Leaves easy, alternate 6-20 x 3-8 cm, small stipules 0.5-1 cm. Flower yellow-white, flowering Might-June. Fruit with 5 (3 lengthy and a couple of shorter) wings, fruiting Juli – September.

Ecology: Restricted to TEF at decrease altitudes (Pometia tomentosa, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Chisocheton siamensis, Pittosporopsis kerrii, Garcinia spp., Baccaurea ramiflora, Pseudouvaria indochinensis. Expertise with planting hardly exist. Seedling manufacturing is tough, germination charges in nurseries low. Assortment of untamed seedlings and fast potting within the forest is extra profitable.

Distribution: Happens in Xishuangbanna confined to a small space inside the Mengla Nature Reserve. Additionally distributed in Northwestern Vietnam Muong Nhe Nature Reserve and Cuc Phuong Nationwide Park.

Makes use of: Home constructing timber utilized by Hani and Dai ethnic teams. The timber is, nonetheless, not a lot valued by the native ethnic teams.

Word: Protected in China (class I).




Tree household with 59 species and an uncommon distribution sample – North temperate, Malesia and South America. In Xihuangbanna 3 genera with 8 species. Widespread are Engelhardtia spicata and Pterocarya tonkinensis.

Pterocarya tonkinensis

Behavior: Briefly deciduous tree, medium – massive measurement, as much as 25 m peak.

Bark white – greyish, cracked, inside bark fibrous. Leaves compound 10-18 cm, leaflets with tooth, 8-12 pairs. Flower minute, in slender branched catkins hanging from the twigs; flowering March-April. Fruit 2-winged, seeds 0.7 cm, fruiting Juli – August.

Ecology: This species grows alongside rivers in gallery forests collectively with Ficus auriculata, F. heterophylla, and Salix spp.

Distribution: Quite common alongside small rivers in Xishuangbanna; additional distributed in Southwestern and Southern China, Laos, Vietnam.

Makes use of: The leaves are used for fish poisoning. Fibres can be utilized. The tree can also be used for ritual fires by the Dai. The wooden could be very mild and gentle, it’s hardly used for timber or fuelwood.




Predominantly temperate household with 700 species worldwide. 5 genera and 49 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species embrace Castanopsis hystrix, C. mekongensis, C. fleuryi, Lithocarpus truncatus, L. grandifolius, Quercus acutissima. Fagaceae type the dominant part of the montane evergreen broad-leaved forest.

Castanopsis hystrix

Behavior: Evergreen tree as much as 30 m peak. Decrease trunk as much as 1 m in diameter.

Bark gray brown to darkish brown, pretty clean with spherical flakes on the decrease a part of the trunk. Leaves 5-12 x 2-3 cm, darkish inexperienced above, red-brown under; not toothed. Fruit single, 1.5 cm in upright spikes, 6 –13 mm lengthy. Flowering April – June, fruits in September – November.

Ecology: Quite common tree species in MEBF in altitudes from 1000 – 2000 m. In dryer situations usually the dominant tree species blended with Castanopsis fleuryi, Lithocarpus microspermus, Actinodaphne henryi, Phoebe minutiflora, Syzygium spp. Sturdy coppicing skill and good pure regeneration, shade-tolerant when younger. The species turns into more and more plentiful after disturbances (e.g. fireplace).

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna, extensively distributed in Mainland Southeast Asia.

Makes use of: Primarily for firewood, the Dai use good bole varieties for home constructing timber. Fruits are edible.


Castanopsis mekongensis

Behavior: Evergreen tree as much as 25 m peak. Decrease trunk as much as 80 cm in diameter.

Bark gray and pretty clean, twigs furry. Leaves 10-25 x 3-7 cm, with yellow to golden hairs under, not toothed. Fruit single, 1.5 – 2.0 cm, in 4 –5 mm lengthy spikes. Flowering March – April, fruits from August – October.

Ecology: Scattered in all sorts of forest from TEF, TS-EF, to MEBF in altitudes from 600 – 1800 m, preferring moist situations. Pure regeneration underneath shade.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Laos and Vietnam.

Makes use of: Precious timber used for home constructing and temple poles (Dai). Fruits are edible. Bark incorporates tannins.




Predominantly tropical household with 540 species worldwide in South Asia, Australia, South America. In Xishuangbanna 2 genera with 18 species. Widespread species embrace Elaeocarpus austro-yunnanensis, E. dubius, Sloanea dasycarpa.

Elaeocarpus austro-yunnanensis

Behavior: Evergreen tree as much as 20 m peak. Bole as much as 60 cm DBH.

Bark darkish brown, deeply fissured. Leaves easy, alternate, spirally organized, toothed. Darkish inexperienced foliage intermingled with scarlet purple outdated leaves. Dimension 10-21 x 5-9 cm. Stalks bent and swollen on the leafbase. Flowers small, in unbranched sprays, flowering June – Juli. Fruit ellipsoid 3.5 – 4 cm lengthy, 2 cm broad, green-yellowish, fruiting October – November.

Ecology: Scattered in TS-EF, widespread in MEBF in altitudes 800 – 1400 m. In MEBF blended with Syzygium cumini, Engelhardtia spicata, Lithocarpus microspermus, Sacrosperma arboreum, Castanopsis spp., extra plentiful on poorer soils.

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna. Endemic to Yunnan, additional distributed in Cangyuan, Jingping, Menglian, Simao.

Makes use of: Timber not very sturdy, used for boards and inside constructions.




Tiny household with solely 8 species worldwide, confined to tropical Africa and Asia. In Xishuangbanna 1 species: Duabanga grandifolia.

Duabanga grandifolia

Behavior: Enormous evergreen tree as much as 40 m peak. Younger bushes with lengthy horizontal facet branches, in older bushes turning into steeply ascending with drooping ideas.

Bark pale gray, not cracked, irregularly flaking in older bushes. Leaves 12-25 x 5-10 cm lengthy, opposite-planar in lengthy flattened sprays, no tooth. Darkish inexperienced above, grey-green under. Stalks stout, 0.2 – 0.7 cm. Flower 5 – 7.5 cm, white, in heavy branched clusters on the finish of twigs, flowering March – Might. Fruit 2.7 – 4.5 cm, broadly ovate with giant star-shaped calyx at base, splitting into 5 sections, fruiting Might – July.

Ecology: Very quick rising pioneer species preferring moist areas in all sorts of forest. Widespread characteristic after shifting cultivation, at roadsides and streams. Typically rising along with Anthocephalus chinensis, Mallotus spp. May be planted as a framework species for restoring forest ecosystems.

Distribution: Widespread in Xishuangbanna as much as 1000 m a.s.l. Broadly distributed all through Mainland Southeast Asia.

Makes use of: Though a quick rising tree, the timber is fairly worthwhile. Used for home constructing by totally different ethnic teams.




875 species worldwide, principally confined to tropical rainforests, centered in Indonesia. 12 genera with 18 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species are Spondias pinnata, Dracontomelon macrocarpum, Drimycarpus racemosus, Semecarpus reticulata, Toxicodendron succedaneum.

Spondias pinnata

Behavior: Deciduous tree to twenty m peak with open crown and slender branches.

Bark pale gray, clean with rounded knobs, thick; inside bark pink, juicy. Leaves 30 – 40 cm, odd-pinnate, alternate, 3 – 8 pairs of reverse leaflets, 3 – 11 cm, with out hairs, no tooth, clean. Flower 0.5 cm, white or creamy yellow, bisexual and unisexual flowers on the identical tree, branched clusters in higher leaf axils, 15 – 30 cm, flowering February – Might. Fruit 3.5 – 5 cm, inexperienced turning into soiled yellow, oval, fleshy with a single giant stone containing as much as 5 seeds, fruiting August – December.

Ecology: Discovered at altitudes 500 – 1200 m, primarily in TS-EF. Very widespread round villages, usually blended with bamboo. Planted in homegardens of a number of ethnic minorities.

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Mainland SE-Asia.

Makes use of: Multipurpose tree. Fruits are edible and really wealthy in Vitamin C, used for making sauces and in soups; attribute flavour of the Dai delicacies. Timber can be utilized for making boards and fuelwood. Rubber-like sap could be extracted from the bark.




Massive and really various household with over 10,000 species worldwide, together with herbs, climbers shrubs, and bushes. Concentrated within the tropics. In Xishuangbanna about 45 genera with over 120 species. Widespread tree species embrace Anthocephalus chinensis, Metadina trichotoma, Randia yunnanensis, Wendlandia tinctoria.

Anthocephalus chinensis

Behavior: Briefly deciduous tree as much as 30 m peak. Younger bushes have a lengthy straight trunk with horizontal facet branches clustered on the high. Mature bushes develop a big, oval crown with drooping branches.

Bark pale gray brown, clean when younger, turning into flaky to fissured when outdated. Inside bark pale yellow. Leaves 10-30 x 5-14 cm, reverse planar, rectangular with barely pointed ideas. Flower white turning pale orange in dense spherical heads, 4 – 6 cm in diameter, solitary or in pairs on the finish of the twigs, flowering July – September. Fruit 3.5 – 5 cm, inexperienced then brown, fairly fleshy, particular person fruits splitting into 4 sections with many wingless seeds, fruiting November – January.

Ecology: Widespread in TEF and TS-EF, from 500 as much as 1200 m. Often in open areas alongside streams and roads. Very quick rising pioneer species, usually rising along with Duabanga grandiflora. May be planted as a framework species for restoration of degraded forest areas.

Distribution: Pretty widespread in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Yunnan and Guangxi, Northern Thailand and Northern Indochina.

Makes use of: Good timber, used for carpentry and carvings. The species is extensively utilized in plantation forestry. Additionally used as a shade tree in agro-forestry schemes, e.g. for Coffea and Cocoa.


Metadina trichotoma

Behavior: Evergreen tree as much as 25 m peak.

Bark yellow-brown, barely flaking. Leaves 8-24 x 3-8 cm, tapering at each ends, decussately organized, darkish inexperienced and shiny above. Flower heads 1.5 – 2 cm in diameter, pale yellow, grouped in branched clusters on the finish of the twigs, flowering February – March. Fruit heads 1 cm in diameter with small particular person fruit splitting into 4(2) sections; unwinged seeds, fruiting June – August.

Ecology: From 600 as much as 1200 (2000) m. Primarily present in TEF and TS-EF within the medium layer rising along with Chisocheton siamensis, Knema spp., Garcinia spp., Sapium baccatum. Scattered in MEBF. Prefers moist situations. Shade-tolerant when younger, mature bushes are light-demanding.

Distribution: In Xishuangbanna present in Jinghong and Mengla. Additional distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong, Northern Thailand, Northern Laos and Northwestern Vietnam.

Makes use of: Precious timber with yellow color. Used for home constructing by the Dai ethnic group.




400 species primarily confined to tropical rainforests of SE-Asia. 3 genera with 9 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species are Knema furfuraceae, Ok. globularia, Myristica yunnanensis, and Horsfieldia glabra.

Knema furfuraceae

Behavior: Evergreen tree as much as 20 m peak with slim pyramidal crown and horizontal branches with drooping ideas.

Bark grey-brown to green-brown, clean and skinny. Inside bark with watery pink sap. Leaves 15-50 x 5-14 cm, lanceolate with pointed tip and regularly narrowed in the direction of the heart-shaped base. Mature leaves leathery, uninteresting darkish inexperienced above, grey-green under. Stalk 0.7 – 1 cm, stout. Flower yellow-brown, in brief clusters with woody important stalks, principally behind leaves, flowering January – February. Fruit 3 – 4.5 cm, rectangular, densily lined with yellow-brown hairs, thick pores and skin. Purple seeds, fruiting March – June.

Ecology: The species is a particular characteristic of less-disturbed TEF, often at decrease altitudes as much as 1000 m. Shade-demanding, usually dominating in the decrease and medium storeys along with Knema globularia, Garcinia spp., Pittosporopsis kerrii, Baccaurea ramiflora. Scattered additionally in TS-EF and MEBF in moist areas and Northern expositions.

Distribution: In Xishuangbanna present in Jinghong and Mengla. Additional distributed in Thailand, Malaysia and components of Indonesia.

Makes use of: Fuelwood and timber for small constructions. Seeds include oil.


Myristica yunnanensis

Behavior: Evergreen tree as much as 30 m peak with conical crown and horizontal branches.

Bark grey-brown, clean. Inside bark with purple sap. Leaves 24-45 x 8-18 cm, lanceolate, darkish inexperienced above, grey-green under with tiny reddish hairs. Stalks 2-4 cm. Flower yellow, 3 – 5 particular person blossoms in leaf axils, flowering November – January. Fruit 4 – 5.5 cm with yellow-brown hairs, containing a purple seed 3.5 – 4.2 cm, fruiting March – June.

Ecology: The species is confined to TEF as much as 700 m. Shade demanding when younger, shade-tolerant when mature. Preferring moist areas, rising collectively with Garcinia spp., Knema spp., Barringtonia macrostachya, Horsfieldia glabra.

Distribution: In Xishuangbanna distributed in Mengla and Jinghong, additional distributed in Jingping. Endemic to Yunnan.

Makes use of: Seeds include oil. Timber can be utilized for poles and boards. Can be used for afforestation.

Word: Protected in China (class III).




Small however widespread household with 600 species worldwide. 7 genera with 22 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread tree species embrace Schima wallichii, Eurya groffii, Anneslea fragrans.

Schima wallichii

Behavior: Massive evergreen tree as much as 35 m peak and 1 m DBH with a dense crown and straight unbutessed trunk.

Bark darkish gray or nearly black, turning into very thick and deeply cracked. Inside bark darkish purple, fibrous and aggravating. Leaves variable, 2-8 x 5-18 cm, broadly ovate, principally with out tooth. Above darkish shiny inexperienced, with out hairs, under mild inexperienced with quick white hairs on the veins. Younger leaves orange, densily lined with silky hairs. Flower 2 – 5 cm, white, solitary or clustered within the axils of leaves close to the tip of the twigs, flowering March – April. Fruit 1 – 2.5 cm woody spherical capsule splitting into 5 sections with many seeds surrounded by a slim wing, fruiting November – February.

Ecology: Attribute and customary factor of MEBF rising collectively with Castanopsis hystrix, Lithocarpus truncatus, Paramichelia baillonii, Phoebe puwenensis. Extra scatteredly in TEF and TS-EF. The species is a long-lived pioneer with wind-dispersed seeds. Good pure regeneration and robust coppice skill. It readily establishes in disturbed areas (e.g. over-logged areas) and infrequently grows into gregarious stands on deserted shifting cultivation lands.

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna. Additional distributed all through Yunnan, Mainland Southeast Asia, Indonesia.

Makes use of: Wooden sturdy; important home constructing timber used for poles, beams and boards by many ethnic teams in Xishuangbanna. Good fuelwood, utilized by Aini and produced in a coppice system with requirements. The species is fire-resistant and could be planted in fireplace breaks. May be propagated by means of seedlings and by direct sowing.




223 species worldwide. 5 genera with 11 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species embrace Paramichelia baillonii, Manglietia forrestii, Magnolia henryi.

Magnolia henryi

Behavior: Small to medium sized evergreen tree as much as 20 m peak with a slim crown.

Bark mild to darkish inexperienced, clean. Leaves 7-20 x 20-70 cm, narrowly elliptic, darkish shiny inexperienced above, stalks 3 – 5 cm. Flower buds slim, 5 – 7 cm lengthy, stalks as much as 10 cm, flowering in Might. Fruit woody, rectangular, 10 – 15 cm, fruiting August – September.

Ecology: Shade demanding tree, rising scatteredly within the under-storey of various forest sorts, primarily present in moist situations at altitudes from 540 as much as 1500 m.

Distribution: In Xishuangbanna present in Jinghong and Mengla, additional distributed in Southern Yunnan, Myanmar, and Northern Thailand.

Makes use of: Decorative functions.

Word: Protected in China (class III).




285 species worldwide, principally in South America. 1 genus with 2 species in Xishuangbanna: Barringtonia macrostachya, B. pendula.


Barringtonia macrostachya

Behavior: Medium to massive sized evergreen tree as much as 25 m peak. Decrease trunk as much as 1 m in diameter. The trunk branches early, dense crown.

Bark gray to pale brown, small rounded flakes on mature bushes. Inside bark with mild purple strips. Leaves 5-13 x 15-40 cm, darkish shiny inexperienced, narrowly lanceolate with a brief tip, with out tooth; stalks 2 – 4 cm. Flower 1.5 – 4 cm, white to pinkish, hanging in clusters as much as 110 cm lengthy, flowering April – June. Fruit egg-shaped with 4 important ridges, 8 – 14 cm, purple to purple color, fruiting July – September.

Ecology: Attribute factor of the middle-storey of TEF at altitudes from 580 – 800 m, related to Baccaurea ramiflora, Microcos chungii, Alniphyllum fortunei, Knema spp., Garcinia spp. The species prefers moist and shady situations, bushes usually rising in small teams. Pure regeneration is sweet underneath shade.

Distribution: In Xishuangbanna present in Mengla and Jinghong, additional distributed in Yunnan in Jingping and Honghe.

Makes use of: Resulting from branchy development behavior not often used for home constructing. Typically planted for decorative functions.




2850 species principally in SE-Asia and tropical America. 13 genera with 66 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species embrace Actinodaphne henryi, Alseodaphne petiolaris, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Litsea baviensis, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus tenuipila, Machilus salicina, Phoebe minutiflora, Phoebe puwenensis.

Actinodaphne henryi

Behavior: Medium sized evergreen tree as much as 25 m peak.

Bark yellow-white, clean. Leaves whorled, 7-13 x 17-30 cm, younger leaves are mild inexperienced produced in distinct flushes. Terminal buds giant, protected by many layers of overlapping leafy bracts, leaving distinct scars on the twigs. Flower female and male on totally different bushes, flowering December – February. Fruit 3 – 4 cm, reddish, fruiting August – October.

Ecology: Widespread and forming a attribute factor of MEBF at altitudes 800 – 1300 m. Related to Castanopsis hystrix, C. fleuryi, Lithocarpus spp., Engelhardtia spicata, Elaeocarpus austro-yunnanensis, Phoebe minutiflora. The species is shade-tolerant when younger, light-demanding when mature. Widespread in dryer areas of MEBF, additionally in disturbed areas.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Simao.

Makes use of: Good wooden properties, however small dimensions of timber. Primarily used for smaller constructions and carpentry.


Machilus salicina

Behavior: small evergreen tree as much as 5 m with shrubby behavior.

Bark soiled white, clean. Leaves 1.2-3 x 8-18 cm, outdated leaves darkish inexperienced and shiny above, mild grren under, younger leaves orange to pale purple, produced in distinct flushes. Flower yellow, 0.6 cm, flowering February – March. Fruit small, 0.7 cm, purple when ripe, fruiting April – June.

Ecology: Quite common within the under-storey of dryer MEBF at altitudes 800 – 1400 m, rising along with Olea rosea, Lasianthus kerrii, Ficus hirta var. imbariensis.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Southern Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam.

Makes use of: Fuelwood and decorative functions.


Litsea glutinosa

Behavior: small to medium sized tree as much as 15 m, briefly deciduous.

Bark pale creamy brown or greyish, finely fissured. Inside bark yellow with fragrant resin. Leaves 3-11 x 6.5-26 cm, alternate, clustered close to the tip of the twigs, elliptic-oblong with blunt tip. Younger leaves orange, densily lined with yellowish hairs, outdated leaves darkish shiny inexperienced with hairs on important veins above. Flower heads in unbranched clusters in leaf axils, as much as 7 cm, flowering Might – June. Fruit 0.7 – 1 cm, black, fruiting September – October.

Ecology: Widespread in all sorts of forest at altitudes from 700 – 1900 m. Mild-demanding, prefers open forest areas, widespread after disturbances and on deserted shifting cultivation lands.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributd in Southern Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, and Northern Vietnam.

Makes use of: Timber with good woo properties, utilized by the Dai for home constructing. The resin and seeds can be utilized to provide oil.




Small household with 250 species worldwide, primarily in tropical America. 1 genus with 2 species native to Xishuangbanna: Bombax ceiba and B. insignis.

Bombax ceiba

Behavior: Large deciduous tree as much as 35 m. Massive crown with thick horizontal branches.

Bark pale gray or cream, with sharp conical thorns when younger, turning into clean and barely fissured with age. Leaflets 4-5 x 8-15 cm, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, fully clean. Particular person stalks 1.5 – 2.5 cm, important stalks 10 – 19 cm. Flower 8 – 10 cm, vivid orange-red showing shortly after the outdated leaves fall from January to February. Fruit 4-6 x 10-17 cm, rectangular, straight, fruiting March – April.

Ecology: Mild-demanding species, grows often in open areas, usually alongside roadsides at altitudes from 800 – 1700 m. Tolerant of momentary flooding and infrequently seen alongside river banks. Scatteredly in TS-EF and Limestone forest, usually as massive emergents.

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Mainland SE-Asia, Indonesia and Australia.

Makes use of: Gentle timber, used for making matches. Hairs contained in the seeds are used for stuffing quilts and pillows. Planted in homegardens of a number of ethnic teams.




One of many largest plant households which varieties an vital a part of the flora on each continent with 18,000 species worldwide. Break up into 3 teams: Papilionoidae, Caesalpinioidae, and Mimosoidae. About 30 genera with a minimum of 70 tree species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread tree species of the Papilionoidae embrace Erythrina stricta, Dalbergia spp., Ormosia yunnanensis. Belonging to the Caesalpinioidae group are Bauhinia variegata and Cassia siamea. Mimosoidae embrace Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Albizia chinensis, Cylindrokelupha yunnanensis, and Pithecellobium clypearia.


Erythrina stricta

Behavior: Medium-sized deciduous tree as much as 25 m peak with steeply ascending branches and open crown.

Bark pale cream, gentle and corky, younger bushes with sharp thorns on thick woody bases, older bushes with much less thorns, nearly clean. Leaves spirally organized, pinnately trifoliate18 – 27 cm lengthy, leaflets skinny, 9/11 x 8-14 cm. Twigs strong, prickly. Flower 3.5 – 4 cm, vivid scarlet, in dense clusters, flowering February – March. Fruit 5 – 10 cm, flat, with 1 – 3 seeds spaced all through the pod, fruiting March – Might.

Ecology: Widespread in open areas round villages and alongside streams, usually colonising degraded areas. Scatteredly in TS-EF, present in each dry and moist areas. Mild-demanding, pure regeneration solely in open areas.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Mainland SE-Asia, Jap Java, and the Philippines.

Makes use of: Wooden very gentle. The Dai use the trunk to make pots for steaming rice.


Bauhinia variegata

Behavior: Small deciduous tree as much as 15 m with open irregular crown.

Bark tan-brown to blackish, roughly cracked. Leaves 5 – 12 cm, round, 2-lobed with a large and shallow cleft. Younger leaves silky furry, outdated leaves darkish inexperienced. Flower 7 – 10 cm, white or purple (wild bushes often have white flowers), in brief unbranched clusters alongside leafless twigs, protecting the entire tree, flowering January – March. Fruit 2-2.5 x 20-30 cm, splitting lengthways and curling outwards in 2 ribbons, 10 – 25 seeds, fruiting in March – Might.

Ecology: Widespread in TS-EF with longer dry interval, particularly in limestone forests and in deciduous forests. Mild-demanding tree, plentiful in pure regeneration after shifting cultivation, usually related to Ficus semicordata, Trema orientalis, Mayodendron igneum, and Cratoxylon cochinchinensis.

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, and Indochina.

Makes use of: Good wooden properties however timber with small dimensions, used for carpentry. Flowers are edible and a conventional dish of Dai, Hani and Jinuo ethnic teams. Typically planted for decorative functions.


Massive and divers household, 8100 species discovered on all continents, however most plentiful within the tropics. 27 genera with about 90 species native to Xishuangbanna. Widespread tree species embrace Baccaurea ramiflora, Bischofia javanica, Sapium baccatum, Antidesma bunius, Alchornea tiliafolia, Phyllanthus emblica, Macaranga denticulata, Mallotus spp.


Baccaurea ramiflora

Behavior: Small evergreen tree as much as 12 m peak with dense and spreading crown and crooked trunk.

Bark pale cream, clean or barely flaking, skinny. Leaves spirally clustered at intervals alongside the twigs, narrowly elliptic with shortly tapering tip, 5-10 x 10-22 cm, darkish inexperienced and glossy above, fully clean. Flower small, pale orange or yellow-green, female and male on totally different bushes, females on older branches and on the principle trunk in drooping clusters as much as 30 cm, flowering February – March. Fruit about 2 – 3 cm, purplish when ripe, ellipsoid, hanging in strings from older branches and the principle trunk, fruiting Might – Juli.

Ecology: Major under-storey tree in TEF, rising along with Pseudouvaria indochinensis, Pittosporopsis kerrii, Ficus langkokensis, shade-demanding, prefers dryer areas within the TEF at altitudes from 500 – 1000 m.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed on Hainan, in Guangxi, Vietnam, India, and Myanmar.

Makes use of: Fruits are edible and style sweet-sour, usually cultivated in Dai homegardens. The fruits can be utilized to remedy pores and skin illnesses and the bark for curing cough. Wooden is used for agricultural instruments and for fuelwood.


Bischofia javanica

Behavior: Massive semi-evergreen tree as much as 35 m peak with dense crown and stout trunk.

Bark pale brown or reddish brown, clean. Inside bark thick, brownish-pink with purple sap. Leaves trifoliate, spirally alternating. Leaflets 4-8 x 7-15 cm, oval-elliptic; margin with small, rounded tooth, fully clean. Flower greenish-yellow, quite a few in slim branched clusters at leaf axils, flowering January – February. Fruit 0.5 – 1 cm, hanging in giant clusters, brown-black when ripe, fruiting July – November.

Ecology: Widespread alongside stream valleys in all sorts of forest at altitudes from 600 – 1200 m. Typically one of many few giant bushes left standing in degraded forests close to villages. Shade-tolerant when younger, light-demanding when mature.

Distribution: Widespread in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed all through SE-Asia, Taiwan, Southern Japan, Pacific Islands.

Makes use of: Wooden used for building and furnishings. The bark incorporates tannins and is utilized by the Dai for toughening ropes and nets. Fruits are edible. Roots could be boiled to make a soup.




110 species concentrated in Northern temperate areas. 2 genera with 3 species in Xishuangbanna: Betula alnoides, Betula luminifera, and Alnus nepalensis.


Betula alnoides

Behavior: Massive, briefly deciduous tree as much as 40 m peak with fairly open crown and barely drooping branches.

Bark red-brown or silvery gray with giant rectangular lenticels, peeling in very skinny horizontal flakes. Inside bark pale brown, fragrant. Leaves spirally organized, easy, sharply and irregularly toothed, decrease floor with tiny resinous dots. Flower tiny, greenish, in drooping catkins 10 – 15 cm lengthy. Female and male flowers in several catkins however on the identical tree, flowering December – January. Fruit 0.4 cm with 2 papery wings braoder than the nut, fruiting April – June.

Ecology: Present in MEBF, often at greater elevations (800) 1000 – 1700 m. The species prefers moist situations, often widespread at Northern Expositions, related to Sapium baccatum, Litsea baviensis, Alniphyllum fortunei. Lengthy-lived pioneer species, seeds are dispersed by wind. Plentiful in pure regeneration on deserted shifting cultivation lands or small clearcuttings, can develop into gregarious stands.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Northern Thailand, Himalyas, Northern Indochina.

Makes use of: Precious timber, utilized by Dai for home constructing and carpentry. The bark is used for medicinal functions akin to curing colds, treating Malaria, and abdomen aches.




400 species confined to the outdated world tropics. 3 genera with 9 species in Xishuangbanna.


Garcinia xanthochymus

Behavior: Small evergreen tree as much as 18 m peak with single straight important trunk and horizontal branches.

Bark darkish brown, skinny. Inside bark with yellow sap. Leaves reverse, as much as 10 x 40 cm, rounded or blunt at each ends, thick, darkish shiny inexperienced. Flower 1.5 – 2.5 cm, whitish, 4 – 8 flowers clustered collectively on quick woody stumps, flowering March – April. Fruit 4.5 – 9 cm darkish yellow, 3 – 5 giant seeds, fruiting September – November.

Ecology: Shade-demanding under-storey tree in TEF at altitudes 600 – 1000 m, widespread in less-disturbed forest, usually alongside streams. The species is related to Aglaia parviridia Knema spp., Baccaurea ramiflora, Mitrephora spp.

Distribution: In complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Jingping, Hekou, Northern Thailand.

Makes use of: Fruits are edible, seeds include oil, the sap can be utilized for medicinal functions. Additionally used for fuelwood.




Virtually completely tropical household with 565 species. 12 genera with a minimum of 29 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread tree species embrace Aglaia parviridia, Amoora dasyclada, Aphanamixis grandifolia, Chisocheton siamensis, Dysoxilum binectariferum, Toona ciliata, Walsura yunnanensis.


Toona ciliata

Behavior: Massive, briefly deciduous tree as much as 40 m peak with lengthy straight trunk with slim buttresses when mature.

Bark grey-brown, vertically cracked. Inside bark orange-brown, fibrous, candy smelling. Leaves 35 – 50 cm, odd- or even-pinnate, leaflets in 6 – 11 pairs, 3-4 x 6-15 cm, fully clean when mature. Flower 0.5 – 0.8, white, in much-branched clusters at leaf axils and alongside leafless twigs, flowering January – February. Fruit 2.5 – 3 cm, blackish, splitting into 5 sections however not falling aside, fruiting Might – July.

Ecology: Widespread in TS-EF, attribute part of the emergent layer, discovered at altitudes of 700 – 1200 m. The species is mild demanding, prefers moist websites. Rising along with Nephelium chryseum, Altingia excelsa, Ficus altissima.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Northern Thailand, India and Myanmar.

Makes use of: Precious timber with mild purple colour, used for home constructing by Dai and Hani. Has turn into uncommon because of selective exploitation. Roots, leaves, fruits, and bark are substances in varied natural drugs mixtures.




Minute household with solely 4 species worldwide. 1 species in Xishuangbanna: Tetrameles nudiflora, usually positioned in a separate household of its personal, Tetramelaceae.


Tetrameles nudiflora

Behavior: One of many largest forest bushes reaching a peak of fifty m, briefly deciduous. Open crown, very lengthy straight trunk turning into strongly buttressed when totally grown.

Bark skinny, pale silver-grey, clean and glossy. Inside bark thick and gentle, pale yellow-brown. Leaves 10-15 x 12-20 cm, easy, alternate, clustered close to the tip of twigs, broadly ovate or nearly round, irregularly and bluntly toothed. Flower tiny, greenish, male and females on totally different bushes, in lengthy drooping spikes close to the tip of leafless twigs, flowering March – April. Fruit 0.5 cm, pale brown, many minute seeds, fruiting April – Might.

Ecology: Attribute characteristic of TEF, often under 700 m, favouring flat alluvial areas near streams, rising along with Vatica xishuangbannaensis, Terminalia myriocarpa, Chisocheton siamesis, Horsfieldia glabra. Additionally present in dryer websites on rocks and particularly on limestone outcrops.

Distribution: In Xishuangbanna solely present in Jinghong and Mengla, additional distributed in Jingping, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia.

Makes use of: Medium timber high quality, used for boards.

Word: Protected in China (class II).




Massive, nearly completely tropical household, 1450 species worldwide. 10 genera with 11 species in Xishuangbanna. Widespread species embrace Nephelium chryseum, Pometia tomentosa Mischocarpus pentapetalus, and Sapindus rarak.


Pometia tomentosa

Behavior: Large evergreen tree as much as 35 m peak, with fairly open crown and barely buttressed trunk.

Bark orange-brown, fairly clean, usually flaking in skinny scales. Inside bark pale orange with purple sap. Leaves 30 – 70 cm, even-pinnate, 4 – 10 pairs, 3.5-9 x 6-26 cm. Mature leaves vivid inexperienced with scattered red-brown hairs. Flower 0.4 cm, orange-green, branched cluster hanging from higher leaf axils, as much as 60 cm, flowering March – April. Fruit 1.2 – 3 cm, vivid purple, lastly black with a single giant seed, fruiting Might – June.

Ecology: Present in TEF and TS-EF, restricted to moist areas. Shade-tolerant tree species, however often discovered within the cover layer. Related to Parashorea chinensis, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Horsfieldia glabra, Chisocheton siamensis.

Distribution: Present in complete Xishuangbanna, additional distributed in Simao, Jingping all through Mainland SE-Asia and components of Indonesia.

Makes use of: Good wooden properties, utilized by Dai as a home constructing timber.

Word: Protected in China (class III).


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